Pediatric Neonatology

What does a Pediatric Neonatologist do?
What are the career opportunities?
What Board, if any, certifies a Pediatric Neonatologist?
What is the lifestyle of a Pediatric Neonatologist?
What is the compensation of a Pediatric Neonatologist?
How do I become a Pediatric Neonatologist?
Where do I find out about available programs?
When do I apply?
Why should I choose to become a Pediatric Neonatologist?
Faculty Contacts
Proposed Electives

What does a Neonatologist do?

A neonatologist provides comprehensive care for critically ill premature and full-term infants from birth until discharge from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Neonatologists often begin their work by providing antenatal consultation in the context of preterm labor or a fetus who has one or more congenital anomalies that require preparation for the birth and coordination of services. In addition to the day-to-day management of critically ill infants, neonatologists also attend high-risk deliveries, providing supportive care of infants from birth, and frequently perform technical procedures such as endotracheal intubation and placement of central venous and arterial catheters.

Many aspects of a neonatologist’s position vary with the setting and the neonatologist’s interests. Most neonatologists work in a newborn intensive care unit (NICU), either in an academic or private hospital setting. Some neonatologists also provide long-term follow-up of high-risk infants, others specialize in the care of infants who require Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO), and some care for lower-risk newborns in the newborn nursery. A broad spectrum of clinical problems affect infants in the NICU, including conditions associated with preterm birth, difficulties in the transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life, and serious congenital anomalies, including congenital heart disease. Beyond intensive care medicine and technical procedures, the role of the neonatologist also importantly includes family counseling to assist families and the NICU team in addressing and coping with uncertainties in the infant’s prognosis, the appropriate course of medical care, and/or ethical dilemmas.

What are the career opportunities?

Neonatology is a hospital-based subspecialty. A NICU is housed either within a birthing hospital or a free-standing Children’s Hospital that lacks in-house delivery services. In either case, newborns born at other hospitals can be transported to a NICU for further care. Specifics of a neonatologist’s role depends upon the designated acuity of the NICU (Level I being the lowest acuity providing basic neonatal care to well newborns to Level III care, where surgical subspecialties, ECMO services and mechanical ventilation are offered, with Level II providing intermediate care for stable, non-mechanically or short-term ventilated infants). Neonatologists practice primarily in a group practice, which can be affiliated either with an academic or private practice organization. Virtually all academic and some private neonatology practices are affiliated with residency and fellowship training programs.

There are a number of academic opportunities available to neonatologists. These include laboratory, translational, clinical, epidemiological and/or health services research; educating teaching (medical students, residents, fellows, nurses, nurse practitioners, and/or physician assistants); and quality improvement and/or administrative activities. In addition, there are clinical and academic leadership opportunities available within neonatology at the local, regional, national and international level.

What Board, if any, certifies a Neonatologist? 

Neonatologists are certified by the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) Sub-board of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine. The initial subspecialty examination is offered in the Spring, every two years. In order to be eligible to take this exam, applicants must first complete a 3-year residency in Pediatrics and a 3-year fellowship in Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, as well as achieve ABP certification in General Pediatrics.

What is the lifestyle of a Neonatologist?

Each neonatology practice has a structure and scheduling model designed to meet clinical needs and the group’s mission. Examples include a private practice model in which a neonatologist covers during the day (or night) for a day or week at a time, a partner covering the opposite shift. In an alternative to this model, a neonatal nurse practitioner or pediatrician covers at night with the neonatologist available, from home, for back-up calls. In academic practice, a more likely arrangement involves assigning the neonatologist to certain weeks of research or administrative activities and other weeks of clinical NICU coverage, on rotation with a group of residents, nurse practitioners and/or fellow(s). Night coverage is variable: some programs require attending physicians to participate in in-hospital night coverage; in others, night coverage is provided by neonatology fellows, nurse practitioners and/or residents and the attending neonatologist takes call from home.

What is the compensation of a Neonatologist?

Compensation of neonatologists is generally among higher levels for pediatric subspecialties, with some notable geographic variation depending upon the practice location. Further, neonatologists in private practice generally earn substantially more then those in academic medicine.

Some information on compensation is made available through a 2016 survey conducted by Eric Horowitz and the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine.  A presentation on data collected may be viewed in the following link:  Neonatologist Salary Factors

How do I become a Neonatologist?
To become a Neonatologist, you must complete a three year fellowship in Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine after completing a residency in Pediatric or Medicine-Pediatrics.

Neonatology participates in a match ( that occurs in the fall each year, together with all Pediatric Subspecialties. Currently, there are more slots available for fellows than there are applicants, so applicants are rarely unable to find an accredited fellowship position.

Where do I find out about available programs?
Information about Neonatology fellowship programs is available through the Organization of Neonatal Perinatal Medicine Training Program Directors (ONTPD) website (, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) website ( or the AAMC Electronic Residency Application Service® (ERAS®) website (  Also, the ONTPD directory provides contact information for the individual program directors and other useful information; the ERAS site has links to the websites of participating programs.

When do I apply?
The timeline for applying is posted on the ONTPD website. All training programs in Neonatal Perinatal Medicine are required to join the NRMP match. The application process begins 1 year before the anticipated start date of fellowship (typically in the3rd year of Pediatric residency). Applications are submitted starting July, with interviews taking place through the Fall and Winter. The rank order lists are normally due end of November and the match is mid-December.

Information about the match and statistics can be found at all of the above stated websites.

Why should I choose to become a Neonatologist?
Neonatology is a fascinating, exciting and extremely rewarding field that provides the opportunity to combine skills in critical care medicine with in-depth study of physiology, developmental biology, and postnatal growth, maturation and development of premature and critically ill newborn infants. At the same time, Neonatology offers tremendous opportunities to partner with parents and colleagues from other disciplines to optimally address an infant’s medical challenges and, sometimes, ethical dilemmas. As a baby’s and family’s first pediatric caregiver, the neonatologist enjoys both the challenge and fulfillment of intensive care of the most fragile of patients. Neonatology is also a field of many unanswered clinical and scientific questions and, thus, provides endless research opportunity. Further, there has been steady job availability for neonatologists over many years in a variety of practice settings. The many options in Neonatology career pathways, combined with the medical, technical, scientific and intellectual challenges of the field, make Neonatology a versatile and dynamic subspecialty.

For more information about Neonatology, visit these websites:

AAP Section on Neonatal Perinatal Medicine

Organization of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine Training Program Directors (ONTPD)

ERAS Fellowships




Subspecialty journals:
Journal of Perinatology
NeoReviews and NeoReviewPlus
NICHD Cochrane Neonatal Systematic Reviews
Archives of Disease in Childhood (Fetal and Neonatal Edition)

Faculty Contacts

These individuals have offered to be available to medical students/residents to discuss their particular subspecialty. Questions could include the choice of subspecialty, lifestyle, job opportunities and the fellowship application process. This is not meant to be a long term mentorship relationship.

Christiane Dammann, MD
Tufts Medical Center, Boston

Patricia Chess, MD
University of Rochester Medical Center, Golisano Children’s Hospital

For additional contact information, one can also reference:

Proposed Electives for a Resident Entering Neonatology
Below is a list of suggested (not mandatory) rotations that a resident could consider if they are planning to apply in this particular subspecialty. This is not meant to be an all-inclusive curriculum, but rather a list to create a program that fits a resident’s individual needs.

  • Anesthesia (procedures: intubation, line placement- specifically peripheral A lines)
  • PICU
  • Cardiology
  • Radiology
  • NICU (Simulation, transport, exposure to prenatal consultations, neonatal follow-up, research)
  • MFM
  • Special interest- Palliative care, neurology, pulmonology, public and global health

Please see this reference for suggestions as well:

Journal of Perinatology (2013) 33, 910-913; doi:10.1038/jp.2013.101; published online 22 August 2013

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